This section of the Linux tutorial introduces the basics of the Linux filesystem and commands used to move around it. Also discusses absolute and relative paths.
/binis a place for most commonly used terminal commands, like ls, mount, rm, etc.
/bootcontains files needed to start up the system, including the Linux kernel, a RAM disk image and bootloader configuration files.
/devcontains all device files, which are not regular files but instead refer to various hardware devices on the system, including hard drives.
/etccontains system-global configuration files, which affect the system’s behavior for all users.
/homehome sweet home, this is the place for users’ home directories.
/libcontains very important dynamic libraries and kernel modules
/mediais intended as a mount point for external devices, such as hard drives or removable media (floppies, CDs, DVDs).
/mntis also a place for mount points, but dedicated specifically to “temporarily mounted” devices, such as network filesystems.
/optcan be used to store additional software for your system, which is not handled by the package manager.
/procis a virtual filesystem that provides a mechanism for kernel to send information to processes.
/rootis the superuser’s home directory, not in
/home/to allow for booting the system even if
/home/is not available.
/runis a tmpfs (temporary file system) available early in the boot process where ephemeral run-time data is stored. Files under this directory are removed or truncated at the beginning of the boot process. (It deprecates various legacy locations such as
/lib/init/rwin otherwise non-ephemeral directory trees as well as
/dev/. > *and
/dev/shmwhich are not device files.)
/sbincontains important administrative commands that should generally only be employed by the superuser.
/srvcan contain data directories of services such as HTTP (
/srv/www/) or FTP.
/sysis a virtual filesystem that can be accessed to set or obtain information about the kernel’s view of the system.
/tmpis a place for temporary files used by applications.
/usrcontains the majority of user utilities and applications, and partly replicates the root directory structure, containing for instance, among others,
/varis dedicated to variable data, such as logs, databases, websites, and temporary spool (e-mail etc.) files that persist from one boot to the next. A notable directory it contains is /var/log where system log files are kept.
How to decrypt a Ubuntu 16.10 encrypted home folder?
I have a defunct Ubuntu 16.10 installation* on a separate hard drive. There are files on that drive, in my home directory, that I need access to, but are encrypted using Ubuntu’s “encrypt home fold… Encrypted folders on Ubuntu Linux using eCryptfs on an external ha… This blog post continues my Ubuntu encryption tools testing. Previously there was an example for losetup. However, with the latest Ubuntus eCryptfs is recommended instead. eCrypfs makes one directory in a file-system crypted. Since it does not work on a partition level, you d…
It can monitor: the temperature of the motherboard and CPU sensors (using lm-sensors). the temperature of the NVidia GPUs (using XNVCtrl). the temperature of ATI/AMD GPU
Update: Oct 9, 2019 Intel Temperature Guide - by CompuTronix Preface The topic of processor temperatures can be very confusing. Conflicting opinions based on misconceptions concerning terminology, specifications and testing leaves users uncertain of how to properly check …
typing source /etc/environment will fix path for the moment, then you can replace
Complete Guide on understanding the Syslog protocol, syslog message format as well as log forwarding. Best practices included!
This is a practical guide which, while not always being too serious, tries to give real-life instead of theoretical examples. I partly wrote it because I don’t get excited with stripped down and over-simplified examples written by people who know what they are talking about, showing some really cool Bash feature so much out of its context that you cannot ever use it in practical circumstances. You can read that sort of stuff after finishing this book, which contains exercises and examples that will help you survive in the real world.
This tutorial is written to help people understand some of the basics of shell script programming (aka shell scripting), and hopefully to introduce some of the possibilities of simple but powerful programming available under the Bourne shell. As such, it has been written as a…
This week we discussed tunneling with SSH, so I feel it is appropriate to highlight this great book dedicated to SSH. You think you know how to use all the features of SSH, but you don’t, and Googling isn’t going to provide you this comprehensive compilation. #DailyBookDrop